Lifestyle Change 改变生活方式
Sarah: So John, you told me about the paleo diet and what it is. But why did you decide to eat like that?
John: Well, let me tell you. I was feeling sick for a long time.
Sarah: Oh, I’m sorry.
John: Oh, it’s okay now. Thanks though. I started to feel sick three years ago, and then it got worse and worse in my stomach. I had lots of stomach trouble called indigestion, and I didn’t know why until I found out that some foods are healthier than others. So that’s why I started learning about the paleo diet and eating healthy. I found that we should eat fresh fruits and fresh vegetables and we definitely shouldn’t eat fast food. And we shouldn’t eat very many snacks either.
John: And because I was sick with my stomach trouble, I was also feeling depressed. But I learned that our moods and our emotions can be affected by what we eat.
John: Yes. I was very surprised to learn that. But it makes sense because our brain chemistry comes from the foods we eat. When we eat healthy foods, we get good chemistry in our body and our brains can function normally, and we can have good moods and good emotions.
Sarah: So you feel happier and healthier now that you changed your diet.
John: That’s true. But changing my diet wasn’t enough. Even though I fixed my diet, I still didn’t feel 100 percent. So I had to do more research. And I found something else that’s very important. I didn’t realize before but everyone needs to get enough exercise every week. In fact, it’s best if you can exercise 30 minutes every day.
John: Well, of course you can take a day off. Two days off each week is okay. And you don’t have to do very difficult exercise. Just riding a bicycle or jogging is enough. But I also found that having a healthy diet and getting enough exercise is still not enough because you need two more important factors.
Sarah: What are they?
John: One is called stress management. When we feel stressed, our body has a reaction to stress, and it can make you feel sick, and it can put you in a bad mood. So we need to learn ways to manage our stress. So we need to learn how to breathe deeply and relax more. And when we encounter stress, we should learn healthy ways to react and not react in unhealthy ways, such as getting angry or feeling frustrated.
Sarah: What’s a healthy way to react?
John: Well first, you should breathe and relax your body by slowing down. And then you should think calmly and clearly about the best way to handle a problem. So don’t just worry about the problem and think about what can go wrong, but think calmly about ways to solve problems.
John: But I found the most important factor in feeling healthy was a big surprise to me.
Sarah: What was it?
John: We need to get enough sleep.
John: Everyone knows we should sleep more but very few people sleep enough. Most adults should sleep 8 hours every night. I was only sleeping 5 or 6 hours every night.
Sarah: Oh wow.
John: Yeah. So sleeping at night is like recharging your battery, right. So do you have a cell phone?
Sarah: Sure, of course.
John: What do you do when the battery is dead?
Sarah: I plug it in.
John: Yeah. And you need to leave it plugged in until it has a full charge. Well, not sleeping enough is just like unplugging your phone before it’s charged. So it’s much better to have a healthy diet and get a regular exercise, learn stress management skills, and most importantly, get enough sleep every night.
Sarah: Okay. I’ll try hard. Thank you.
Going Paleo 旧石器时代饮食
Sarah: So John, I heard you’ve been trying out a new diet. Can you tell me about it?
John: Yes. I’ve been trying the paleo diet.
Sarah: What’s that?
John: Well, this diet is supposed to make you feel better and eat healthier. And the idea is that a lot of the problems we have with health, a lot of modern human health problems, come from the foods we eat. So the idea is that maybe we should eat a diet which is closer to what early humans ate before.
Sarah: Early humans ate? Like what did they eat?
John: Well, they mostly ate fruits, and berries, and nuts, and meat. They didn’t eat grains because grains come from agriculture, from growing plants on purpose.
John: And they didn’t eat bread and cake and cookies and crackers.
Sarah: It sounds like a hard diet to keep.
John: It’s a little difficult at first. What you have to realize is that these foods are refined foods. Refined foods are not really natural foods because humans have to do a lot of cooking processes to make these foods.
John: When you want to eat natural, you should eat food just the way it comes like raw vegetables and fresh fruit and meat that isn’t processed. So you can’t eat hotdogs.
John: And sausage.
John: But you can have steak…
Sarah: It sounds…
John: And fish.
Sarah: It sounds like an expensive diet.
John: Well actually, it turns out that when you eat fresh vegetables and fresh fruits, it can be cheaper. Processed food, refined food, comes in lots of packaging from the store, and sometimes it can be more expensive for convenience. Modern humans eat these processed foods for convenience. You don’t have to wash it. You don’t have to do the chopping and preparation when you eat refined foods. But when you go on paleo diet, you buy the fruit and you eat it. You buy the vegetables, you have to wash it and chop it and then you eat it. So it’s not processed, and it’s much healthier for you.
Sarah: How do you feel since you started this diet?
John: I feel much better actually. When we eat carbohydrates, we can feel tired. Carbohydrates are in processed foods like anything that comes from grains. Like I said, bread, cookies, cake, crackers. They have lots of carbohydrates. And when we eat them, our body has to use lots of energy to digest carbohydrates. It takes away energy which could be used for doing activities. That’s why if you eat lots and lots of bread and cake, maybe you feel tired.
Sarah: Oh, I see.
John: If you just eat fresh vegetables and fruit, you can feel like you have lots of free energy.
Sarah: Are there any foods that you miss?
John: I think the food I missed the most is pizza. Pizza was my favorite food before. I used to eat pizza three times every week. Now, I rarely eat pizza. Pizza has a crust. The crust is bread, so the crust has lots of carbohydrates. Also, pizza has a lot of processed meats including pepperoni and sausage. Those meats are not very healthy for you. Also, pizza has lots of cheese on it. Cheese is another processed food. So if we cut out pizza from our diet, we can eat healthier and feel like we have more energy.
Sarah: Well, that’s great. Thanks for telling me about paleo.
John: You’re welcome.
Supper in Sri Lanka 斯里兰卡晚餐
Waduri: Okay, Danu. Now, let’s talk about what do you have in Sri Lanka for breakfast, lunch and dinner.
Danu: Sure Widuri. So in Sri Lanka, I will talk about my breakfast first.
Waduri: Okay. Breakfast.
Danu: So in Sri Lanka, there are different kinds of breakfast menus for Sri Lankans. For example, we eat so much grains, nuts, and we eat rice as well. But for rice, the special thing in Sri Lanka is we cook milk rice.
Waduri: Milk rice.
Danu: Do you know how do we cook milk rice?
Waduri: No, but it sounds interesting.
Danu: Yes. We put coconut oil and coconut milk in the cooked rice and we make it milk rice. And we eat that milk rice with a special paste of chilies and dried fish. It’s really delicious and really healthy. And apart from that, we have fruits and salads as well. For example, Sri Lanka is a tropical country and we have many kinds of different fruits all around the area. So for example, oranges, star fruits, mangosteen, bananas, are the most popular fruits for breakfast menu.
Waduri: Oh, interesting. So that chili paste, it means spicy? That milk rice will be spicy?
Danu: Yes, because of the coconut milk, it’s a bit sweet but at the same time because of the chili paste, it’s hot.
Danu: So you can adjust your spiciness as you wish.
Waduri: Oh so, you eat spicy food in the morning. Then what about lunch?
Danu: Oh for the lunch, it’s usually everybody eats rice and curry. But in Sri Lanka, rice and curry doesn’t mean just rice and one dish of curry. We usually make three to four dishes. And it might be fish curry, some vegetables, and another vegetable salad. For example, the other vegetable curry might be cabbage while the salad might be some homegrown leaves. Very healthy food.
Waduri: Wow. Another healthy food. So you have salad for both breakfast and lunch.
Danu: Yes, it depends. So you can – some people have both for breakfast and lunch. But usually, it’s for lunch, we have a salad of leaves.
Waduri: Is that what you always have at your school and home?
Danu: Usually, my mom makes my food for me to take to school. So my parents, they don’t like – they don’t want me to eat from outside because it’s healthier to eat home. So my mom makes sure that I take proper food to school. So basically, yes, I eat my home made food.
Waduri: So she makes sure you eat your salad, right?
Danu: Yes. She makes sure I eat my salad.
Waduri: Nice. Then what about dinner?
Danu: For dinner. For dinner, it’s a very simple dish. In Sri Lanka, in our culture, we say that you should eat like a king for breakfast. Eat like a prince for the lunch. And eat like a beggar for the dinner. That’s because of the healthy lifestyle we follow. So for dinner, it might be a simple dish like bread and some gravy or another dish called pittu.
Waduri: What is that?
Danu: Pittu is made with grounded coconuts and flour. You mix it. And you boil it. You steam it. Steam-boil it. So it becomes a very simple food, and you put some coconut milk on it, and you’ll eat it.
Waduri: Is it sweet?
Danu: You can make it sweet and you can make it hot depending on what ingredients do you use. So in Sri Lanka, we use lots of different spices, so depending on what spices you use, you can change the flavor as well.
Waduri: Wow. Interesting. It seems like you have a lot spices in Sri Lanka. And then what about snack time. Do you have snack time?
Danu: Yes, definitely. We have a snack time in the evening. For example, from 4:00 to 6:00 PM, we usually have tea.
Danu: Milk tea with some cookies.
Waduri: Oh nice.
Danu: That’s like family tea time. So we sit together. We have some cookies, maybe some bananas, and we drink milk tea. Have you tried Sri Lanka’s tea?
Waduri: I think I remember—what is it again? Ceylon tea.
Danu: Yes, it is Ceylon tea.
Waduri: Ceylon tea.
Danu: Ceylon tea.
Waduri: Ceylon tea.
Waduri: So you mix the milk with that Ceylon tea.
Danu: That’s right. We mix the milk with Ceylon tea.
Waduri: Interesting. I want to try it.
Danu: You should try it. It’s very delicious.
Waduri: Okay. Thank you, Danu.
Danu: Thank you, Waduri.