例：We do farm work as the old peasant teaches us.
As (it is) in your country, we grow wheat in the north and rice in the south. 正如(像) 你们国家一样，我们北方种植小麦，南方种植水稻。
(2) as+形容词/副词原级+(a /an)+名词+as ;
否定式：not as/so — as
例：He is as good a player as his sister.
(3) such + n. + as to do 如此……以致于……
例：She is such a fool as to believe what he said.
(4) so + adj./adv. + as to do sth 如此……以致于……
例：He was so strong as to carry the heavy box.
(5) such — as—象……之类的…… (接名词或定语从句)
例：He wished to be such a man as Lei Feng was.
(6) the same +名词+as 和……一样的…… (接名词或定语从句)
例：He is not the same man as he used to be 他不是从前的那样子了。
(7) as 引导非限制性定语从句
例：As is known to us, knowledge is power.众所周知，知识就是力量。
例：We get wiser as we get older. 随着我们长大，我们也变得越来越聪明。
例：As it was getting very late, we soon turned back.
例：Child as he is, he knows much about science.
(1) prefer to do sth
例：I prefer to stay at home.我宁愿呆在家里。
(2) prefer doing sth
例：I prefer playing in defence.我喜欢打防守。
(3) prefer sb to do sth
例：Would you prefer me to stay?你愿意我留下来吗?
(4) prefer to do sth rather than do sth……宁愿……而不愿.…".
例句：I prefer to stay at home rather than go out
(5) prefer doing sth to doing sth
例：I prefer watching football to playing it.
(6) prefer sth to sth
例：I prefer tea to coffee.我要茶不要咖啡。
(1) be doing sth —- when —
例：He was still smiling when the door opened and his wife came in.
(2) be about to do sth — when —
例：We were about to start when it began to rain.
(3) had not done sth — when —/ hardly — when —
例： He had not fallen asleep when the telephone rang.
(4) had just done —- when —
例：I had just gone to bed after a very hard day when the phone rang.
(1) It +seems + that从句
例：It seemed that everyone was satisfied.看来好像每个人都很满意。
(2) It seems to sb that —
例：It seems to me that she is right.我看她是对的，
(3) There seems to be —-
例：There seems to be a heavy rain.看上去要有一场大雨。
(4) It seems as if —-
例：It seemed that she couldn't come to class.看样子她不能来上课了。
(1) She is taller than I by three inches. 她比我高三英寸
(2) There is one year between us. 我们之间相差一岁。
(3)She is three years old than I她比我大三岁。
(4) They have increased the price by 50%. 他们把价格上涨了50%
(1) what 引导主语从句
例：What surprised me is that everybody seemed to be very indifferent to her.
[ indifferent adj.不关心的;冷漠的]
(2) what 引导宾语从句
例：We can learn what we do not know. 我们能学会我们不懂的东西。
(3) what 引导表语从句
例：That is what I want.那正是我所要的。
(4) what 引导同位语从句
例：I have no idea what they are talking about. 我不知道他们正在谈论什么.
(1) too…to do sth.
例：Politics is too important to be left to the politicians.
(=Politics is so important that it can't be left to the politicians.)
(2) only too — to do sth
例：I shall be only too pleased to get home.我要回到家里就非常高兴。
(3) too + adj + for sth
例：These shoes are much too small for me.我穿这双鞋太小了。
(4) too + adj + a + n.
例：This is too difficult a text for me.这篇课文对我来说太难了。
(5)can't … too +形容词无论……也不为过
例：We cannot emphasize the importance of protecting our eyes too much.
(1) where 引导的定语从句
例：This is the house where he lived last year. 这就是他去年住过的房子。
(2) where 引导的状语从句
例：Where there is a will，there is a way.有志者事竟成。
He left his key where he could find.他将钥匙放在易找到的地方。
I will go where I want to go.我要去我想去的地方。
例：This is where you are wrong.这正是你错的地方。
注：引导状语从句的where= 介词+the place where (定语从句)
例：Go where(ver) you are most needed.到最需要你的地方去。
(1) wish that sb did sth希望某人现在做某事
例：I wish I were as strong as you. 我希望和你一样强壮。
(2) wish that sb had done sth希望某人过去做某事
例： I wish you had told me earlier要是你早点告诉我就好了。
(3) wish that sb would/could do sth希望某人将来做某事
例：I wish you would succeed this time. 我希望你这次会成功。
10、would rather 句型：
(1) would rather do sth than do sth 宁愿做……而不愿做……
例：She would rather die than turn against his motherland.
(2) would rather have done sth 宁愿过去做过某事
例：I would rather have taken his advice.我宁愿过去接受他的意见。
(3) would rather sb had done sth宁愿某人过去做过某事
例：I would rather I had passed the examination last week.
(4) would rather sb did sth宁愿某人现在或将来做某事
例： Who would you rather went with you? 你宁愿谁和你一起去?
(1) before sb can/ could … 某人还没来得及……
例：Before I could get in a word ，he had measured me.
(2) It will be +时间+ before + 还有多长时间……
例：It will be 4 years before he graduates. 他还有四年时间变毕业了。
(3) had done some timebefore(才……)
例：We had sailed four days and four nights before we saw land.
(4)had not done — before —不到……就……
例：We hadn’t run a mile before he felt tired.
(5) It was not +一段时间+ before不多久就……
例：It wasn’t two years before he left the country.
(1) It is /was +被强调部分+that(who)…
例：It was I who wrote to my uncle yesterday.
(2) Is/was it + 被强调部分 + that (who) …
例：Was it your brother that you met in the street?
(3) Where/who/what/how等特殊疑问词 + is/was it that …
例：How is it that you will go to visit her tomorrow?
(4) do +谓语动词(强调谓语)
例：They do know the place well. 他们的确很熟悉那个地方。
(1) should like to/ would like to/ would love to have done sth.
例：You should like to have written to your mother.
(2) was / were going to do sth.(用过去将来时态表示原打算做什么)
例：Lucy was going to watch a basketball match.
(3) was / were going to have done sth. 表示未完成原来的计划和安排
例：Lily was going to have cleaned her bedroom, but she had no time.
(4) expect, intend, hope, mean, plan, promise, suppose, think,
want, wish …
例：She had supposed him to be very rich.她原以为他很有钱。
(5) wish that …had done sth.表示过去未曾实现的愿望.
例：I wish he had been here yesterday. 要是他昨天在这儿就好了。
(6) 情态动词should ,would, could, might, ought to等后接不定式的完成时，
should have done =ought to have done本应该做而没做
would have done = 本来就会去做某事而没做
could have done = 本可以做某事而没做
might have done本可以做而没做
例：They ought to have apologized.他们本该道歉的。
例：The room is twice larger than that one.这个房间是那个房间的两倍大。
There is 30 times greater chance of being hit by lightening than being attacked by a shark.
例：The room is three times as large as that one.
(3)倍数+the size /height/length /weight /width of…
例：The room is three times the size of that one.
15、 It is —— that —- 句型
(1) It is + 名词 + 从句
It is a fact/an honour —that+陈述语气从句
例：It is a fact that the earth moves around the sun.
It is a pity/shame/no wonder that+ 虚拟语气从句
例：It is a pity that he should not come. 他若不来可真是遗憾。
(2) It is + 形容词 + 从句
It is natural/important/necessary/strange that + 虚拟语气从句
例：It is important that enough money be collected to fund the project.
It is obvious/apparent/clear that+ 陈述语气从句
例：It is clear that she doesn't like the dress at all.
(3) It + 过去分词 + 从句
It is generally/commonly believed /accepted/thought/heldthat …
例：It is universally acknowledged that trees are indispensable to us.
It is suggested/ordered/desired/requested/decided that +虚拟语气从句
例句：It is suggested that we should hold a meeting next week.
16、It + 不及物动词 + 从句
(1) It seems that
例：It seems that Alice is not coming to the party at all.
(2) It happened that………很偶然.
例：It happened that I won the football lottery last week.
(3) It occurred to sb that…
例句：It suddenly occurred to me thatI knew how to solve that problem.
(4) It appears that….
例： It appears that Tom might change his mind.看来汤姆会改变主意。
例：English is not so difficult a subject as Russia.
Their bones are not as thick as adults’.
例：The weather of this year is a lot hotter than that of last year.
例：The restoration was so bad that it made some of the buildings less secure than they had been before.
(4) The + -er + S + V, — the + -er + S + V —
The + more + Adj + S + V, — the + more + Adj + S + V —
例：The harder you work, the more progress you make.
The more books we read, the more learned we become.
(5) more…. than…与其说…倒不如说
例：Smith is more diligent than intelligent.
(6) no +形容词比较级+ than = as +形容词的反义词+as
例：I am no better at English than you. 我的英语不比你好。
(7) that 在前后比较中代替不可数名词和特指的单数可数名词
例：The traditional picture of St Nicholas is quite different from that
of Father Christmas.
(8) one 在前后比较中代替泛指的单数可数名词。
例：I prefer a flat in Beijing to one in Nanjing, because I want to live near
my Mom's. 与南京相比我更喜欢在北京有一套公寓，因为我想跟我妈妈住一起。
(9) those 在前后比较中代替 特指的复数可数名词。
例：Salaries are higher here than those in my country.
(10) ones 在前后比较中代替泛指的复数可数名词
例：Cars do cause us some health problems — in fact far more serious ones
than mobile phones do.汽车确实给我们的身体健康带来问题，事实上比手机造成的问题更严重。
(1) What a + Adj + N + S + V!
例：What an important thing it is to keep our promise!
(2) How + Adj + a + N + V!(多么…!)
例：How important a thing it is to keep our promise!
(3) How + S + V!
例句：How I want to go to Beijing. 我多么想去北京啊!
(1) must have done sth 一定做过某事 否定形式：can't have done
例：She must have come here last night. 她一定是昨晚来的。
She can't have gone there她不可能到那儿去。
(2) may have done sth可能做过某事否定形式：may not have done
例：Philip may have been hurt seriously in the car accident.
(3) might have done sth 或许做过某事 否定形式: might not have done
例：She might have known what the bottle contained.
(4) should have done sth 估计已经做了某事
否定形式：should not have done
例：She should have arrived in her office by now.
(1) It takes / took / will take sb. some time / money to do sth.
例句：It took me years of hard work to speak good English.
(2) It is + adj +for/of sb to do sth
例：Lincoln said that it was not right for the South to break away from the
It was careless of Tom to break the cup.
(3) Sb. have / has / had no choice but to do… 某人除了做……别无选择.
例句：We had no choice but to take a taxi for we'd missed the last bus.
(4) It's not /just like sb. to do sth.……的行为不/正像某人的一贯作风.
例：lt's not like Jim to be late for class. He regards time as the most
important thing in life.
(5) ….形容词/副词+enough to do sth.
例：I was fortunate enough to travel to South Africa..
(6) It pays to + V — (…是值得的。)
例句：It pays to help others. 帮助别人是值得的。
(7) It cost sb some time/money to do sth
例：It must cost a good deal to live here.住这儿一定会花很多钱的。
(8) do all he could to do sth
do what he could to do sth
do everything he could to do sth
例：They were doing everything they could to help the fatherland.
(9) It is hard to imagine/ say …很难想象/说……
例：It is hard to imagine how Edison managed to work twenty hours each
It's hard to say whether the plan is practical.
(1)…have trouble/difficulty/a hard time/a difficult time (in) doing sth.
例：People from the two countries do not have any difficulty in understanding each other.
(2) upon/on doing sth, 一……就……
例：Upon / On hearing the unexpected news, he was so surprised that hecouldn't say a word.
(3) There is no/some difficulty/trouble (in) doing sth.
例：There is no difficulty in solving this social problem.
(4) There is no need/use harm/hurry in doing sth
例：There is no need in sending such expensive present.
(5) spend some time/money (in) doing sth
例：They say children spend too much time chatting and playing games instead of focusing on their school work.
(6) It's no use / good/ worth doing sth
例：It’s no use talking with him. He won’t listen to you.
(7) It's a waste of time/money/energy doing
例：It's a waste of time watching TV programme as this.
22、as if/though 句型：
例：He spoke to me as if I were deaf.
The new students talked as though they had been friends for years.
例：If the man had pointed with his first finger while he was in Brunei, everyone would have thought that he was very rude.
例：If I were in your position, I would call the police immediately.
例：If I had (should have) time tomorrow, I would certainly help you.
例：Should it rain, the crops would grow better.
Were I your father, I would not give you the money.
Had it not been for the captain, the ship would have sunk
24、Not — until 句型
(1) 陈述句 not — until — 直到……才
例：Last night I didn't go to bed until 11 o'clock. 昨晚我11点钟才睡觉。
(2) 强调句It wasn't until…that… 直到……才…….
例：It wasn't until yesterday that I got your letter.
(3) 倒装句 Not until…did… 直到……才…….
例：Not until I began to work did I realize how much time I had wasted.
(1) Since + S + 过去式，S + 现在完成式
例句：Since he went to senior high school, he has worked very hard.
(2) It is +— + since +持续性谓语动词(表否定)
例：It is three years since she lived here. 她已三年不住这儿了。
(3) It is + — + since S + 瞬间谓语动词(表肯定)
例：It is years since I stopped smoking).我戒烟已经数年了。
26、If only…! 真希望……!若是……那该多好啊!
例：If only I knew his name! 要是我知道他的名字就好了。
例：If only we had followed your advice! 我们要是采纳你的意见就好了。
例：If only I could see him again! 要是我能再看到他多好啊!
If only she would accept my invitation!
(1) Adj./n./adv. + as/ though+ Subject(主词)+ be, S + V— (虽然…)
例句：Rich as our country is, the qualities of our living are by no means satisfactory.
(2) No matter what等特殊疑问词……无论什么…….
例句：No matter what happens, I'll always stand by you.
(3) However + adj/adv + S + V,尽管……
例：You won't be able to do it alone, however much you try.
(4) whatever/whoever/whenever/wherever + S + V，无论什么/哪里……
例：Wherever I am I will be thinking of you. 不管我在哪里我都会想到你。
(5) whether… or not
例：Whether you like it or not, you'll have to do it.
(6) even if/though
例：Even if/Even though the exercise is very difficult, you must do it.
(1) so/as/that/too/how +adj. + a/an + n.
例：He is as good a student as you. 他和你一样是个好学生。
This is too difficult a problem for me.对我来说这是一个太难的问题。
You can hardly imagine how clever a boy he is.
(2) quite/rather/what/such/many + a/an + (adj) +n
例：She sang quite a beautiful song. 她的歌唱得很漂亮。
He was such a fool as to believe what she said.
(3) all/both/half/twice the + n
例：All the students in her class like her very much.
(1) Nothing is + — er than to + V
Nothing is + more + 形容词 + than to + V
例：Nothing is more important than to receive education.
(2) no one (nobody, nothing)+so/as+原级+as
例：Nobody is so blind as those who will not see.
(3) 比较级+than + any other +名词单数
比较级+than + any of the others
例：Bamboo probably has more uses than any other plant in the world.
(4) 否定词 +比较级
例：It can’t be worse.这是最糟的
I can’t agree any more.我非常同意。
(5) be the last —-
例：This is the last thing I want to do. 这是我最不想干的事。
30、more — than 句型：
(1) more — than与其……不如……
例：He is more lazy than slow at his work.
= He is less slow than lazy at his work.
(2) more than超过;不仅仅是;非常
例：These flags are more than just colorful pieces of cloth and thread sewn together. 这些旗子不只是不同颜色的布料和丝线逢在一起。
(3) not more than最多，不超过
例：They finished the project in not more than one year.
(4) no more than仅仅
例：The officials could see no more than the Emperor.