Part II Listening Comprehension (30 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
1. A) The computer was destroyed by the man’s best friend.
B) The man should buy a new notebook.
C) The man may have his mouse repaired.
D) The mouse appears to work well.
2. A) The man is doing what he’s supposed to do.
B) The woman is criticizing the man for his laziness.
C) The man fell seriously ill last night.
D) The woman didn’t like reading novels.
3. A) The woman didn’t receive Mark’s invitation.
B) The man will be there at Mark’s wedding.
C) The woman will be the most beautiful woman then.
D) The man will give a hand to Mark at the ceremony.
4. A) At a department. B) At a garage.
C) At a dentist’s. D) At a barber’s.
5. A) At 10:10. B) At 9:30.
C) At 10:00. D) At 9:40.
6. A) Fanny is worried about her reputation.
B) The man doesn’t think Fanny is pretty.
C) The man thinks the woman is more charming than Fanny.
D) Fanny is a good date in the eyes of many boy students.
7. A) He used to play with his friends outdoors too.
B) He wasted much time in the past.
C) He worked very hard in his study the whole semester.
D) He hurt his ears when playing music too loudly.
8. A) She’s surprised to find herself so famous at school.
B) She will become smarter after coming from winter holiday.
C) She surprised the man.
D) She finally makes it for registration at school.
Questions 9 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
9. A) Racial discrimination becomes less widespread.
B) America has become a socially equal society.
C) Minorities enjoy much more political freedom than before.
D) America is in the right direction to uproot racism.
10. A) He thinks it’s not effective. B) He believes it was badly designed.
C) He assumes it’s not fully observed. D) He holds it’s ideal in fighting against racism.
11. A) The founding principles of the Civil Rights Act.
B) The prejudices in white employers’ mind.
C) The at-will practice of employment.
D) The cowardice of ordinary employees.
Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
12. A) In 1984. B) In 2008.
C) In 1988. D) In 2013.
13. A) As many as 5000. B) An undefined number of them.
C) More than 500. D) A thousand of them.
14. A) It may take a lead in rock climbing across America.
B) It will establish many branches in other big cities.
C) It would give up outdoor rock climbing business.
D) It would hire more competent instructors.
15. A) Because it’s about to bring friends with the same interest.
B) Because it’s an honor to join such a great gym.
C) Because it’s more fun to climb rocky cliffs together with female partners.
D) Because it’s the best kind of sports in cold winter.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.
16. A) Because they are about to express their opinions.
B) Because they are extremely confident.
C) Because they are not patient enough.
D) Because they are very aggressive in daily life.
17. A) By getting fully prepared before talking. B) By speaking in a loud voice.
C) By sticking to your original aim. D) By using appropriate gestures.
18. A) It may be taken lightly by the hearers.
B) It would depress the audience.
C) It might be part of human nature.
D) It will be considered as a black mark of a speaker.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard.
19. A) A newest cure of all kinds of cancer. B) A toy to please one’s children.
C) A way of physical exercise. D) An easiest way to carry out medical research.
20. A) Walking can’t benefit men as much as it does women.
B) Regular fast walking might reduce the risk of getting certain illness.
C) Three hours’ walking a week may prevent men from getting heart disease.
D) A purposeful walking will make one feel well psychologically.
21. A) The time when one wants to start.
B) The time after one passes the age of 55.
C) The moment when one graduates from college.
D) The date when one has earned enough money.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
22. A) The male Indian veterans. B) The youngsters.
C) The women. D) The Indian civilians.
23. A) Social services. B) Innovative young Indians.
C) Indians’ original tribal culture. D) A stronger union among Indian tribes.
24. A) They joined trade unions funded by the government.
B) They enjoy equal rights with other minorities in California.
C) They set up schools to teach American Indian culture.
D) They began to build a stronger connection among Indian families.
25. A) It enhances self government in Indian communities.
B) It brought evil into Indian tribes.
C) It caused criminal charges against some tribe members.
D) It drove many Indian soldiers mentally crazy.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks with the exact words you have just heard. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
I’m pretty sure we all have people in our lives that we are greatly thankful for. I’m sure you can think of a few off the top of your head. I have more than I can 26 . However, it is very rare that I actually communicate my gratitude to the people I 27 in my heart. I know I am supposed to be more 28 about letting people know when they impact me in a 29 way, but I rarely take the time to extend my gratitude.
One of the hardest parts about expressing gratitude for me, especially to other guys, is the difficulty of 30 the awkwardness it takes to randomly send someone a message of thanks. It is easy after I have recently 31 with them; however, many of the people I’m extremely grateful for I do not see very often. I actually received an email 32 from a really good friend. It was a simple thanks note for being a friend but it was very 33 . In addition, the subtle joy of a quick message was just enough to 34 me to pass along some gratitude myself.
Who are you grateful for? I know we have moved past the traditional thankfulness season, but I think it is worth extending and possibly building lasting habits of being grateful. Have you let the people you care about know recently how much you 35 them? Do you think it is possible that unexpressed gratitude can actually communicate ingratitude?
Part III Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 36 to 45 are based on the following passage.
King Edward VIII did something that monarchs do not have the luxury of doing—he fell in love. King Edward was in love with Mrs. Wallis Simpson, not only an American, but also a married woman already once 36 . Yet, in order to marry the woman he loved, King Edward was 37 to give up the British throne—and he did.
To some, this was the love story of the century. To others, it was a scandal that 38 to weaken the monarchy. In reality, the story of King Edward VIII and Mrs. Wallis Simpson never 39 either of these notions. Instead, the story is about a prince who wanted to be like everyone else.
Though his parents surely loved Edward, he thought of them as cold and 40 . Edward’s father was very strict which caused Edward to fear every call to his father’s library, since it usually meant 41 . In May 1907, Edward, only twelve years old, was shipped off to the Naval College at Osborne. He was at first teased because of his royal 42 , but soon gained acceptance because of his attempt to be treated like any other soldier.
After Osborne, Edward’s father became king and Edward became the heir to the throne. But, Prince Edward began to deplore being set on a pedestal or 43 . As Prince Edward later wrote in his memoirs, “And if my 44 with the village boys at Sandringham and the future soldiers of the Naval Colleges had done anything for me, it was to make me 45 anxious to be treated exactly like any other boy of my age”.
H) distantI) persisted
Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.
Elder Abuse and Neglect: a Heartbreaking Reality
[A]Older people today are more visible, more active and more independent than ever before. They are living longer and are in better health. But as the population of older Americans grows, so does the hidden problem of elder abuse, exploitation and neglect.[B]What’s elder abuse? Elder abuse is the infliction of physical, emotional/psychological, or financial harm on an older adult. Elder abuse can also take the form of intentional or unintentional neglect of an older adult by the caregiver.[C]Physical abuse can range from slapping or shoving to severe beatings and restraining with ropes or chains. When a caregiver or other person uses enough force to cause unnecessary pain or injury, even if the reason is to help the older person, the behavior can be regarded as abusive. Physical abuse can include hitting, beating, pushing, shoving, kicking, pinching, burning or biting. It also includes the inappropriate use of medications and physical restraints and physical punishment of any kind.[D]Verbal, emotional or psychological abuse can range from name calling or giving the “silent treatment” to intimidating and threatening the individual. When a family member, a caregiver or another person behaves in a way that causes fear, mental anguish (痛苦) or emotional pain or distress, the behavior can be regarded as abusive. Verbal and emotional abuse can include yelling, swearing and making insulting or disrespectful comments. Psychological abuse involves any type of coercive (强迫的) or threatening behavior that sets up a power differential between the older adult and his or her family member or caregiver. It can also include treating the older person like a child and isolating the person from family, friends and regular activities-through force, threats or manipulative behavior.[E]Financial abuse and exploitation can range from misuse of an older person’s funds to embezzlement (挪用). Financial exploitation includes fraud, taking money under false pretenses, forgery (伪造), forced property transfers, purchasing expensive items with the older person’s money without that person’s knowledge or permission or denying the older person access to his or her own funds or home. It includes the improper use of legal guardianship arrangements, or powers of attorney. It also includes a variety of Internet, telephone and face-to-face scams (欺诈) perpetrated by sales people, or even by so-called friends, for health-related services, home repair services, and financial services.[F]Caregiver neglect can range from caregiving strategies that withhold appropriate attention from the individual to intentionally failing to meet the physical, social or emotional needs of the older person. Neglect can include failure to provide food, water, clothing, medications and assistance with activities of daily living or help with personal hygiene. If the caregiver is responsible for paying bills for the older person, neglect can also include failure to pay the bills or to manage the older person’s money responsibly. Family caregivers may neglect their older relatives because of their own lack of knowledge, resources or maturity, although this is a less frequent form of abuse.[G]Every year, an estimated 4 million older Americans are victims of physical, psychological or other forms of abuse and neglect. Those statistics may not tell the whole story. For every case of elder abuse and neglect reported to authorities, experts estimate as many as 23 cases go undetected.[H]The quality of life of older individuals who experience abuse is severely jeopardized (受到损害), as they often experience worsened functional and financial status and progressive dependency, poor self-rated health, feelings of helplessness and loneliness and increased psychological distress. Research also suggests that older people who have been abused tend to die earlier than those who have not been abused, even in the absence of chronic conditions or life-threatening disease.[I]Agnes, 78 years old, lost her husband last year. Because of some physical limitations as a result of arthritis (关节炎) and declining cognitive abilities, Agnes moved in with her 55-year-old daughter, Emily. The situation is difficult for all of them. Sometimes Emily feels as if she’s at the end of her rope (无计可施), caring for her mother, worrying about her college-age son and her husband, who is about to be forced into early retirement. Emily has caught herself calling her mother names and accusing her mother of ruining her life. Recently, she lost her temper and slapped her mother. In addition to feeling frightened and isolated, Agnes feels trapped and worthless.[J]Like other forms of abuse, elder abuse is a complex problem, and it is easy for people to have misconceptions about it. Many people who hear “elder abuse and neglect” think about older people who live in nursing homes or older relatives who live all alone and never have visitors. But elder abuse is not just a problem of older people living on the margins of our everyday life. It is right in our midst (中间).[K]Most incidents of elder abuse don’t happen in nursing homes and other residential settings. Occasionally, there are shocking reports of staff who abuse residents in their care or of a resident who physically abuses another resident. Although such abuse does occur, the vast majority of older people living in nursing homes and other residential settings have their physical and emotional needs met without experiencing abuse or neglect.[L]Most elder abuse and neglect takes place at home. About 95 percent of older people live on their own or with their spouses, children, siblings (兄弟姐妹) or other relatives not in institutional settings. When elder abuse happens, family, other household members or paid caregivers are usually the abusers. Although there are extreme cases of elder abuse, often the abuse is subtle, and the distinction between normal interpersonal stress and abuse is not always easy to discern.[M]There is no single pattern of elder abuse. Sometimes elder abuse is a continuation of long-standing patterns of violence and physical, emotional or financial abuse within the family. More commonly, elder abuse is related to changes in living situations and relationships brought about either by the older person’s growing frailty and dependence on others for companionship and for meeting basic needs or by a family member’s increased reliance on an older relative for shelter and financial support.[N]It isn’t just older adults who have poor physical health or cognitive impairments who are vulnerable to abuse. Older individuals who are frail, alone or depressed as well as those with a physical disability or mental illness are vulnerable to abuse. Even those who do not have these obvious risk factors can find themselves in abusive situations and relationships. Elder abuse affects older men and women across all socioeconomic groups, cultures, races and ethnicities (民族).[O]Elder abuse, like other forms of violence, is never an acceptable response to any problem or situation, however stressful. Effective interventions can prevent or stop elder abuse. Increasing awareness among physicians, mental health professionals, home health care workers and others who provide services to older adults and family members can help break patterns of abuse or neglect, and both the person experiencing the abuse and the abuser can receive needed help.
46. On some occasions, elder abuse can be very subtle, ranging from ordinary interpersonal stress and actual abuse.
47. Shouting at the older adult or excessively criticizing him by a family member can be defined as verbal and emotional abuse.
48. An adult family member’s overdependence upon an older relative for accommodation or financial support is another subtle type of elder abuse.
49. Though many cases of elder abuse and neglect are reported to authorities, a lot more go unidentified and not dealt with.
50. Elder abuse happens to the senior citizens, regardless of their physical condition, mental status, economic group, culture, race or ethnicity.
51. Caregiver neglect takes various forms, from lack of attention towards the older person to failing to fulfill his physical or social needs.
52. The general public wrongly believes that elder abuse only happens in all types of nursing homes.
53. Most senior citizens are very well taken care of in nursing homes though a few cases of abuse do actually occur.
54. Agnes has become a burden to her daughter who is struggling to live up to several responsibilities imposed on her.
55. Research finds that elder abuse might cause the abused older people to die much earlier than commonly expected.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.
It has been predicted that by 2026, the main consumers of luxury goods will be millennials, or Generation Y(outube). While generation Y workers represent a modest 25% of the world’s population at the moment, they will be the main consumers of luxury brands in the near future, reaching senior and top positions in their professional lives. Time for traditional luxury brands to ask the question: how do we address this digital savvy (有见识的) generation?
Millennials tend to consume luxury with less remorse and will happily share it on social media, as long as they know that the products are worth investing in. Very obvious logos are not on trend with millennials—they are all about ‘fashion codes’ and references. This is recognised by big fashion houses—Nicolas Ghesquière for instance, was appointed by Louis Vuitton to find a solution to the ‘logo fatigue’.
Every brand should aim at delivering the best shopping experience possible and luxury is not about closed doors and traditional heritage-only anymore. The path to purchase has diversified and the internet and the social media represent multiple touch points between brands and consumers.
Some luxury fashion houses anticipated it and started to play on the digital natives’ ground: with one billion users and four billion views per day, Youtube is now commonly used to live stream fashion shows. However, some brands are taking the video tool to the next step: for the SS15 show, Burberry introduced a highlights tape on Youtube, allowing viewers to zoom and focus on different parts of the show.
Another great innovation this year was the introduction of purchasing products via Instagram, which now has a whopping (庞大的) 300 million users. US brand Michael Kors introduced #InstaKors, allowing followers to shop via the platform after registering on the official website. Only 8% of all luxury sales are online, but it’s growing by 25-30%. It’s still important for people to touch the products before buying it, but offering as many interactions as possible on every social channel is key to build exclusive relationships with generation Y.
Another example was the Marc Jacobs pop-up store for the launch of the new Daisy fragrance, which only accepted ‘social currency’: the best tweets and Instagram pictures were rewarded with various gifts, from a goodies bag to a brand handbag.
With gen Y, it’s all about the visual and sharing aspect of purchasing—rather than describing the clothes you’re hesitating to buy, you’ll snap a picture and share it with your friends, or on various social media to get an opinion. The combination of images and social sharing is powerful, and brands need to understand it to not fall into obsolescence (过时).
56. Generation Y refers to young people who _______.
A) use Youtube as the exclusive means of online communication
B) indulge themselves in online shopping
C) have much knowledge about modern technology
D) occupy high positions in big corporations
57. Why is Nicolas Ghesquière mentioned in the passage?
A) Because he’s one of generation Y himself.
B) Because he’s competent in making investments in luxury goods.
C) Because he’s got a way out for traditional fashion manufactures.
D) Because he’s sensitive to changes in new fashions.
58. How could brands adjust themselves to please their customers?
A) By improving the quality of their goods.
B) By providing updated ways for consumers to know about their products.
C) By putting on more ads on social media websites.
D) By hiring more digital savvy executives.
59. What’s the significance of selling products via Instagram to Michael Kors?
A) It’s helpful in appealing to a large number of Instagram users to buy Kors products.
B) It’s conducive to boosting the number of users of Kors official website.
C) It’s crucial to getting people to know more about the products somehow.
D) It’s essential to increasing Kors’ popularity by means of such an online platform.
60. How does the author consider the sharing aspect of buying?
A) It should be taken seriously by fashion designers or manufacturers.
B) It may completely differ from the traditional routine of purchasing.
C) It could be seen as a lack of confidence in making decisions while buying something.
D) It is only a funny habit of the digital natives in modern society.
Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.
We know what effect recessions and booms tend to have on our bank accounts. But what about our feelings and wellbeing? The equation should be simple, right? Recession = sad. Economic boom = happy! But it’s a bit more complicated than that.
Recent research says that those who graduate during recessions are happier in the long run—satisfied with being employed unlike boom-time graduates who wonder if they should be doing better. Emily Bianchi, associate professor at Emory’s Goizueta Business School, likens this to research showing that bronze medalists at the Olympics are happier than silver medalists (who wonder why they didn’t win gold).
The research touches on an even bigger question: Does more money mean more happiness? But what about the rest of us? New research from Jan-Emmanuel De Neve and Michael Norton, professors at the London School of Economics and Harvard respectively, looks at four decades of data (collected from more than 150 countries, including one dataset from the Centers for Disease Control and covers 2.5 million U.S. respondents) to investigate the relationship between life satisfaction and the business cycle. What they found was that well-being is two to eight times more sensitive to negative economic times: Psychologically, a recession hurts a lot more than a boom helps.
De Neve says that this “untold story” is one of the unaccounted costs of a recession. But why do we feel worse during recessions? This asymmetry can be explained by what economists call “loss aversion”—the human tendency to feel losses more strongly than gains, as demonstrated by the research of economists Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky.
The most extreme example of De Neve and Norton’s finding is Greece: When GDP grew 50 percent from 1981 to 2008, happiness went up 5 to 10 percent. When the recession hit, well-being in Greece not only reversed all previous gains, but dropped to the lowest on historical record.
Again, Does more money mean more happiness? According to what’s known as the Easterlin Paradox (伊斯特林悖论), the answer is no: Over the long-run, happiness does not go up with income. In the last decade, however, that contention has been debunked, defended, and debunked again. But De Neve and Norton’s research seems to stand on Easterlin’s side of the debate, that taking into account the magnitudes of change in wellbeing, recessions undo the gains from boom periods.
“When considering the available longer term data that cover entire business cycles, it would appear that wellbeing reports have not risen in most of the world’s economically developed nations, despite having their real GDP almost doubling over the past four decades,” they write.
61. According to Emily Bianchi, why aren’t silver medalists happy?
A) Because they are longing for a better result.
B) Because they don’t get what they deserved.
C) Because they graduate during economic recessions.
D) Because they aren’t as psychologically strong as other medalists.
62. Four decades of data is used in De Neve and Norton’s study because _______.
A) it focuses on the impact of negative economic periods
B) it covers as many business cycles as possible
C) it ensures the credibility of their research results
D) it records how economic booms satisfy the general public
63. De Neve’s “untold story” refers to _______.
A) the real cause of economic ups and downs
B) the negative effects of economic booms on the graduates’ employment
C) the academic mechanism for reaching a scientific conclusion
D) the unexpected impact of a bad economic period
64. What happened in Greece?
A) Life satisfaction experienced ups and downs on a regular basis.
B) The sense of happiness rose very slowly even during economic booms.
C) Sensitivity to economic fluctuations increased immensely.
D) Lack of faith in the economy led to the decreasing of well-being.
65. By the Easterlin Paradox, we can infer from the passage that _______.
A) De Neve and Norton’s finding is groundless
B) it’s pointless to work hard to develop a nation’s economy
C) it’s essential for people to adjust themselves psychologically to feel happier
D) economic gains won’t result in happiness over a long period of time
Part IV Translation (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.
除了吃饺子、看舞龙，在中国人们正以另一种方式来庆祝被称为春节的中国农历新年，即通过分享你自己是如何欢度春节的。中国文化部(Ministry of Culture)推出一项全球性的比赛，参赛者只要在社交媒体网站上上传有关春节的文章、照片和视频，就有机会赢得高达500美元的大奖。根据文化部的一份声明，此次大赛旨在通过比赛“把有关传统春节的习俗传遍世界各地，展示春节特有的快乐、活力(vitality)与和谐，并彰显其日益增长的魅力和影响力”。